Hip replacement is a common type of surgery that replaces a diseased or injured hip joint with prosthesis (implants). It is recommended when painful symptoms can no longer be controlled by non operative treatment. Hip replacement is usually performed to relieve hip pain and inflammation caused by arthritis. Other possible reasons that requires hip replacement surgery includes hip fracture and wear and tear. Various types of arthritis may affect the hip joint, including:
Osteoarthritis, often referred to as “wear and tear” arthritis is common in older adults. In this type, cartilage that cushions the bones of the hips wears away. This causes the bones to rub against each other, thus leading to pain and inflammation.
It is an autoimmune disease which produces a type of inflammation that erodes cartilage, thus resulting in damaged joints.
Osteonecrosis occurs when the blood supply to the ball portion of the hip joint gets disrupted.
Your doctor might recommend hip replacement surgery to you for the following reasons: * If you have hip pain that prevents walking or bending * If you have severe hip pain that persists despite pain medication and interferes with your sleep or work. * Stiffness in hip that may limit the motion.
The procedure takes anywhere from 1 to 2 hours and is performed under either general anesthetic or spinal anesthetic. Once you have been anaesthetized, your surgeon will make an incision in the hip area. The damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with the new metal, ceramic or plastic implant. The incision will then be closed with stitches.
There are 3 main types of hip replacement surgery:
Total hip replacement, also known as, total hip arthroplasty is the most common hip surgery. In this surgery, damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic component. During the procedure, the damaged or worn out femoral head will be removed and replaced with the metal stem that is inserted into the hollow center of the femur.
Partial Hip Replacement, also called hemiarthroplasty, removes and replaces only one side of the hip joint- femoral head. Femoral head is the ball at the top of the thigh bone (femur).
Hip resurfacing refers to the procedure wherein the femoral head is trimmed and relined with a smooth metal covering, instead of completely replaced as in total hip replacement surgery.
Potential risks of hip replacement surgery includes: * Infection at the site of incision * Fracture * Hip Dislocation * Altered Leg length * Blood clots * Loosening of the joint * Nerve and blood vessel injury
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